paranthropus robustus habitat

25/01/2021 — 0

It was also associated with the H. ergaster/H. Sampai saat itu tidak diketahui spesies, temuan itu … Spesies Paranthropus robustus Itu terletak di selatan benua Afrika, di daerah tropis dan padang rumput terbuka seperti Gua Coopers, Drimolen, Swartkrans, Kromdraai dan Gondolin. The Genus Paranthropus P. boisei P. aethiopicus P. robustus. However, for chimps, he got strongly inaccurate results when compared to actual data for newborn brain size, weaning age, and birth interval, and for humans all metrics except birth interval. [47] The textural complexity of the kneecap SKX 1084, which reflects cartilage thickness and thus usage of the knee joint and bipedality, is midway between modern humans and chimps. Името му се дължи на палеонтолога Робер Брум, който открива вида в Южна Африка през 1938 г. However, it is much debated whether or not Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and is synonymous with Australopithecus, so the species is also often classified as Australopithecus aethiopicus. Since most of the Paranthropus boisei habitat was a grassland, they may have had to eat tall grasses at some points throughout the year. This species lived between 1.8 million and 1.2 million years ago in South Africa. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C 4 biomass such as grasses or sedges. . [16], In 1959, another and much more robust australopithecine was discovered in East Africa, P. boisei, and in 1975, the P. boisei skull KNM-ER 406 was demonstrated to have been contemporaneous with the H. ergaster/H. "[85] In 1985, British biologists Paul H. Harvey and Tim Clutton-Brock came up with equations relating body size to life history events for primates, which McHenry applied to australopithecines in 1994. This is odd as P. robustus is thought to have had a diet high in gritty foods, and gritty foods should decrease cavity incidence rate, so P. robustus may have often consumed high-sugar cavity-causing foods. [36] Modern humans which suffer from spinal disc herniation often have vertebrae that are more similar to those of chimps than healthy humans. In contrast, the presence of perikymata on the incisors and canines (growth lines which typically are worn away after eruption) could indicate these teeth had a reduced growth rate. boisei). sagittal crest flat to dish shaped face broad sweeping zygomatics -towards front of face massive cheekbones. [24] P. robustus has a tall face with slight prognathism (the jaw jutted out somewhat). In a harem society, males are more likely to be evicted from the group given higher male–male competition over females, and lone males may have been put at a higher risk of predation. The specimen is still generally assigned to A. africanus, though the Sterkfontein hominins are known to have an exceedingly wide range of variation, and it is debated whether or not the materials represent multiple species instead of just A. Brain size in P. robustus ranges from 410 to 530 cc, a bit larger than the typical chimpanzee's. [34] In 1988, Falk and Tobias demonstrated that early hominins (at least A. africanus and P. boisei) could have both an occipital/marginal and transverse/sigmoid systems concurrently or on opposite halves of the skull. Cranial Anatomy P. Robustus. Based on the average of these two regressions, he reported an average weight of 47.1 kg (104 lb) for P. robustus using the specimens SK 82 and SK 97. Thus, there are 108 bone tool specimens from the region in total, and possibly an additional two from Kromdraai B. boisei. Bone tools may have been used to cut or process vegetation,[71] process fruits (namely marula fruit), strip tree bark,[72] or dig up tubers or termites. robustus. Er lebte vor rund zwei Millionen Jahren im Südosten Afrikas, starb dann aber etwa vor 900.000 Jahren aus – warum, ist bis heute unklar. It is possible that the coding region concerned with thickening enamel also increased the risk of developing PEH. In contrast, he reported a very small build for A. africanus (which he referred to as "Homo" africanus) and speculated it had some cultural and hunting abilities, being a member of the human lineage, which "paranthropines" lacked. This paper examines the existing Sr-87/Sr-86 data collectively derived from three studies of Paranthropus robustus teeth with the aim of exploring whether the dataset as a whole may provide deeper insight into habitat, mobility, and growth for this species. Other articles where Australopithecus aethiopicus is discussed: Australopithecus: Australopithecus aethiopicus: Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.7–2.3 mya), formerly known as Paranthropus aethopicus, is the earliest of the so-called robust australopiths, a group that also includes A. robustus and A. boisei (described below). Because of this, the predominant model of Paranthropus extinction for the latter half of the 20th century was that they were unable to adapt to the volatile climate of the Pleistocene, unlike the much more adaptable Homo. McHenry plotted body size vs. the cross sectional area of the femoral head for a sample of just humans and a sample with all great apes including humans, and calculated linear regressions for each one. Further, the size of the sagittal crest (and the gluteus muscles) in male western lowland gorillas has been correlated with reproductive success. For P. robustus, he reported newborn brain size of 175 cc and weight of 1.9 kg (4.2 lb), gestation 7.6 months, weaning after 30.1 months of age, maturation age 9.7 years, breeding age 11.4 years, birth interval 45 months, and lifespan 43.3 years. [22] The site is thought to be roughly 2–1.5 million years old based on animal remains which have also been recovered from Swartkrans Member 1. This paper examines the existing 87Sr/86Sr data collectively derived from three studies of Paranthropus robustus teeth with the aim of exploring whether the dataset as a whole may provide deeper insight into habitat, mobility, and growth for this species. He calculated the humerus-to-femur ratio of P. robustus by using the presumed female humerus of STS 7 and comparing it with the presumed male femur of STS 14. Indtil da det ikke var kendt af de arter, blev opdagelsen gjort ved først, da han købte et fragment af en molær der solgte et barn. From Wikipedia: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorhini Infraorder: Simiiformes Family: Hominidae Genu Paranthropus boisei is a species of australopithecine from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa about 2.3 to 1.34 or 1 million years ago. Before the transition, P. robustus populations possibly contracted to certain wooded refuge zones over 21,000 year cycles, becoming regionally extinct in certain areas until the wet cycle whereupon it would repopulate those zones. Australopithecus is also an extinct genus of hominins which is broadly categorized into several groups like Australopithecus Afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus bahrelghazali, Australopithecus deyiremeda, Australopithecus garhi and Australopithecus sediba. PEH may have also increased susceptibility to cavities. The first remains, a partial skull including a part of the jawbone (TM 1517), were discovered in June 1938 at the Kromdraai cave site, South Africa, by local schoolboy Gert Terblanche. Its diet included more C 4 biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. The brain volume of the specimen SK 1585 is estimated to have been 476 cc, and of DNH 155 about 450 cc (for comparison, the brain volume of contemporary Homo varied from 500–900 cc). The cavity seems to have been healing, possibly due to a change in diet or mouth microbiome, or the loss of the adjacent molar. This discounts the plausibility of a harem society, which would have resulted in a matrilocal society due to heightened male–male competition. Paranthropus Robustus: Karakteristik, Kapasitas Cranial, Habitat. [41] The radius of P. robustus is comparable in form to Australopithecus species. P. robustus may have used bones as tools to extract and process food. P. robustus society may have been patrilocal, with adult females more likely to leave the group than males, but males may have been more likely to be evicted as indicated by higher male mortality rates and assumed increased risk of predation to solitary individuals. [77], Australopithecines are generally considered to have had a faster, apelike growth rate than modern humans largely due to dental development trends. robustus. habitat. [67] Similarly, in 2016, Polish anthropologist Katarzyna Kaszycka rebutted that, among primates, delayed maturity is also exhibited in the rhesus monkey which has a multi-male society, and may not be an accurate indicator of social structure. SK 62's growth trajectory is more similar to that of gorillas, whose roots typically measure 7 mm (0.28 in) when emerging from the gums. Modern day baboons in this region often shelter in sinkholes especially on cold winter nights, though Brain proposed that australopithecines seasonally migrated out of the Highveld and into the warmer Bushveld, only taking up cave shelters in spring and autumn. The Paranthropus robustus o Australopithecus robustus Ia adalah spesies hominid yang hidup 1.8 hingga 1.2 juta tahun lalu di Afrika Selatan. [68], In 2017, anthropologist Katharine Balolia and colleagues postulated that, because male non-human great apes have a larger sagittal crest than females (particularly gorillas and orangutans), the crest may be influenced by sexual selection in addition to supporting chewing muscles. Based on 3 specimens, males may have been 132 cm (4 ft 4 in) tall and females 110 cm (3 ft 7 in). [105], Extinct species of hominin of South Africa, alveolar bone loss resulting from periodontal disease, "The Pleistocene Anthropoid Apes of South Africa", "Evidence for increased hominid diversity in the Early to Middle Pleistocene of Indonesia". Proponents of monophyly consider P. aethiopicus to be ancestral to the other two species, or closely related to the ancestor. Measuring the distance between the alveolar bone and the cementoenamel junction, P. robustus possibly suffered from a higher rate of tooth-attachment loss, unless P. robustus had a higher cervical height (the slightly narrowed area where the crown meets the root) in which case these two species had the same rate of tooth-attachment loss. In contrast, he estimated A. africanus (which he called "H." africanus) to have been 1.2–1.4 m (4–4.5 ft) tall and 18–27 kg (40–60 lb) in weight, and to have also been completely bipedal. erectus) and humans than other australopithecines. KB 6067, therefore, may possibly be basal to (more ancient than) other P. robustus specimens, at least those for which ear morphology is known. [1] "Paranthropus" derives from Ancient Greek παρα para beside or alongside; and άνθρωπος ánthropos man. Similarly, male gorillas complete dental development about the same time as females, but continue growing for up to 5 or 6 years; and male mandrills complete dental development before females, but continue growing for several years more. Ia berhutang namanya kepada ahli paleontologi Robert Broom, yang membuat penemuan spesies di Afrika Selatan pada tahun 1938. Even though the name of the species has "robust" in it, they were actually the smallest of the Paranthropus Group. [96] Using this and palaeomagnetism, it may date to roughly 1.8 million years ago. [103] Brain was unsure if these predators actively sought them out and brought them back to the cave den to eat, or inhabited deeper recesses of caves and ambushed them when they entered. In 1979, a year after describing A. afarensis from East Africa, anthropologists Donald Johanson and Tim D. White suggested that A. afarensis was instead the last common ancestor between Homo and Paranthropus, and A. africanus was the earliest member of the Paranthropus lineage or at least was ancestral to P. robustus, because A. africanus inhabited South Africa before P. robustus, and A. afarensis was at the time the oldest known hominin species at roughly 3.5 million years old. The original complete skull (without mandible) of a 1,8 million years old Paranthropus robustus discovered in South Africa. [96] About 75% of mammalian remains other than P. robustus are monkeys, including leaf-eating colobine monkeys, possibly the earliest record of the Hamadryas baboon, Gorgopithecus, and Papio angusticeps in South Africa. 03. of 03. [56] In 2015, biological anthropologist Mark Grabowski and colleagues, using 9 specimens, estimated an average of 32.3 kg (71 lb) for males and 24 kg (53 lb) for females. [78] In TM 1517, fusion of the elements of the distal humerus (at the elbow joint) occurred before the fusion of the elements in the distal big toe phalanx, much like in chimps and bonobos, but unlike humans, which could also indicate an apelike growth trajectory. [42] SKX 3602 exhibits robust radial styloid processes near the hand which indicate strong brachioradialis muscles and extensor retinaculae. [90], While removing the matrix encapsulating TM 1517, Schepers noted a large rock, which would have weighed 75 g (2.6 oz), which had driven itself into the braincase through the parietal bone. Because skeletal elements are so limited in these species, their affinities with each other and with other australopithecines are difficult to gauge with accuracy. Fosil tetap dianalisis di Swartkrans menunjukkan bahwa P. robustus mereka hidup, di samping gua, di kamp-kamp yang mereka bangun dengan tulang, tanduk binatang dan batu di pantai danau. Cumulative frequencies of P. boisei from eastern Africa with contem-poraneous P. robustus from southern Africa, and for T. oswaldi from both eastern and southern Africa. Specimens include a crushed partial right face (COB 101), 3 isolated teeth, a juvenile jawbone, and several skull fragments. Broom chose the name robustus in reference to the stout chewing apparatus of this creature — a sturdy jaw and teeth, together with a prominent sagittal crest atop the skull providing a large anchoring area for big jaw muscles. Paranthropus Robustus. The remains of hominins (members of the human lineage) found in it are associated with animals that are thought to be about two million years old and that were adapted to relatively dry and open habitats. erectus, H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, or multiple species. In 1988, palaeoanthropologist Ronald J. Clarke suggested StW 505 from the earlier Member 4 was an ancestor to P. robustus. [62] H. ergaster/H. [2], While growing, the front part of the jaw in P. robustus is depository (so it grows) whereas the sides are resorptive (so they recede). robustus. [14], This was soon challenged in 1974 by American palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould and English palaeoanthropologist David Pilbeam, who guessed from the available skeletal elements a much lighter weight of about 40.5 kg (89 lb). [2] Broom noted the Kromdraai remains were especially robust compared to other hominins. He later found material at Kromdraai, and because the molar teeth were more primitive at that site, he changed the species name at Swartkrans to P. crassidens but used P. robustus for the Kromdraai material. [50] Similarly, in 1988, American anthropologist Henry McHenry reported much lighter weights as well as notable sexual dimorphism for Paranthropus. Very little is known about the postcranial skeleton of P. robustus, because few fossil bones can be unambiguously attributed to this species. "The dentition of the Transvaal Pleistocene anthropoids, "Hominin Taxonomy and Phylogeny: What's In A Name? Druh Paranthropus robustus Nachádza sa južne od afrického kontinentu, v tropických oblastiach a otvorených lúkach, ako sú jaskyne Coopers, Drimolen, Swartkrans, Kromdraai a Gondolin.. Fosílne zvyšky analyzované v Swartkrans ukazujú, že. Habitat. It lived in Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene epoch from about 2.3 [discovered in Omo in Ethiopia] until about 1.2 million years ago. The ramus of the jawbone, which connects the lower jaw to the upper jaw, is tall, which would have increased lever arm (and thereby, torque) of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles (both important in biting down), further increasing bite force. Richard Leakey zufolge handelte es sich bei allen Arten ausweislich ihres kleinen Gehirns … Itu berutang namanya kepada ahli paleontologi Robert Broom, yang membuat penemuan spesies di Afrika Selatan pada tahun 1938. It lived in Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene epoch from about 2.3 [discovered in Omo in Ethiopia] until about 1.2 million years ago. Paranthropus robustus comprises 96% of such specimens (275) compared to a representation of only 4% (11 specimens) of Homo sp. The condition of these holes covering the entire tooth is consistent with the modern human ailment amelogenesis imperfecta. [5] In the spirit of tightening splitting criteria for hominin taxa, in 1954, Robinson suggested demoting "P. crassidens" to subspecies level as "P. r. crassidens", and also moved the Indonesian Meganthropus into the genus as "P. Paranthropus robustus atau Australopithecus robustus adalah spesies hominid yang hidup 1, 8 hingga 1, 2 juta tahun yang lalu di Afrika Selatan. P. robustus may have had a genetic susceptibility for pitting enamel hypoplasia on the teeth, and seems to have had a dental cavity rate similar to non-agricultural modern humans. [22] For comparison, the brain volume of contemporary Homo varied from 500 to 900 cc. Palaeomagnatism suggests Member 3 may date to 1.78–1.6 million years ago, Member 2 to before 1.78 million years ago, and Member 1 to 2.11–1.95 million years ago. The first of these hominids to be found was Paranthropus robustus in 1938 when a jawbone fragment was found in a farm field in South Africa. These roughly aligned with other australopithecines and chimps. [66] The bone tools were typically sourced from the shaft of long bones from medium- to large-sized mammals, but tools sourced from mandibles, ribs, and horn cores have also been found. The dating of Kromdraai B is less clear as there are no animal species which are known to have existed in a narrow time interval, and many non-hominin specimens have not been assigned to a species (left at genus level). Το Paranthropus robustus o ... Habitat. In contrast, chimps have an incidence rate of 47%, and gorillas as much as 90%, probably due to a diet with a much higher content of tough plants. robustus. afarensis. Genus Paranthropus is subdivided further into Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei.The remains of Paranthropus were found in Omo river valley in Southern Ethiopia and western shore of Lake Turkana in Northern Kenya.Paranthropus lived in both southern and eastern Africa was associated with stone tool making. [13], In 1949, also in Swartkrans Cave, Broom and Robinson found a mandible which they preliminary described as "intermediate between one of the ape-men and true man," classifying it as a new genus and species "Telanthropus capensis". They concluded that these bones were, "the earliest direct evidence of fire use in the fossil record," and compared the temperatures with those achieved by experimental campfires burning white stinkwood which commonly grows near the cave. Based on 4 specimens, males averaged 40 kg (88 lb) in weight and females 30 kg (66 lb). Genus Paranthropus is subdivided further into Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. Conversely, SK 3981 is more similar to those of healthy humans, which could be explained as: SK 3981 is abnormal, the vertebrae took on a more humanlike condition with maturity, or one of these specimens is assigned to the wrong species. [23] The enamel thickness on the cheek teeth is relatively on par with that of modern humans, though australopithecine cheek tooth enamel thickens especially at the tips of the cusps, whereas in humans it thickens at the base of the cusps. The remains of at least 130 individuals have been found at Swartkrans. [73][72][71] The form of P. robustus incisors appears to be intermediate between H. erectus and modern humans, which could possibly mean it did not have to regularly bite off mouthfuls of a large food item due to preparation with simple tools. They found that the microwear patterns in P. robustus suggest hard food was infrequently consumed, and therefore the heavy build of the skull was only relevant when eating less desirable fallback foods. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Broom considered them evidence of a greater diversity of hominins in the Pliocene from which they and modern humans descended from, and that several hominin taxa existed alongside human ancestors. Discovered in 1938, it was among the first early hominins described, and became the type species for the genus Paranthropus. He also reported an average of 22.2 years for A. africanus. [19], Typical of Paranthropus, P. robustus exhibits post-canine megadontia with enormous cheek teeth but human-sized incisors and canines. [91], The Pleistocene Cradle of Humankind was mainly dominated by the springbok Antidorcas recki, but other antelope, giraffes, and elephants were also seemingly abundant megafauna. [38] Like modern humans, the ilium of P. robustus features development of the surface and thickening of the posterior superior iliac spine, which are important in stabilising the sacrum, and indicates lumbar lordosis (curvature of the lumbar vertebrae) and thus bipedalism. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. The first of these hominids to be found was Paranthropus robustus in 1938 when a jawbone fragment was found in a farm field in South Africa. [99], At Kromdraai, P. robustus has been unearthed at Kromdraai B, and almost all P. robustus fossils discovered in the cave have been recovered from Member 3 (out of 5 members). Even in a multi-male society, it is still possible that males were more likely to be evicted, explaining male-skewed mortality with the same mechanism. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Dietary hypotheses and human evolution", "Isotopic Evidence for Dietary Variability in the Early Hominin, "Sagittal crest formation in great apes and gibbons", "Evidence of termite foraging by Swartkrans early hominids", "What's new is old: comments on (more) archaeological evidence of one-million-year-old fire from South Africa", "Tertiary Dentine Frequencies in Extant Great Apes and Fossil Hominins", "A probable genetic origin for pitting enamel hypoplasia on the molars of, "Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa", "Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited: The impact of altitude and activity scheduling", "Paleoecology of Early Hominidae in Africa", "Possible predator avoidance behaviour of hominins in South Africa", "A two-million-year-long hydroclimatic context for hominin evolution in southeastern Africa",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 01:39. [3]:285–288 In 1936, Broom had described "Plesianthropus transvaalensis" (now synonymised with A. africanus) from the Sterkfontein Caves only 2 km (1.2 mi) west from Kromdraii. Fossils of both Paranthropus walkeri and the more recent species Paranthropus boisei have been found in the countries of Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania in east Africa. [4], In 1948, at the nearby Swartkrans Cave, Broom described "P. crassidens" based on a subadult jaw, SK 6,[5] because Swartkrans and Kromdraai clearly dated to different time intervals based on the diverging animal assemblages in these caves. Overall, the animal assemblage of the region broadly indicates a mixed, open-to-closed landscape featuring perhaps montane grasslands and shrublands. Το είδος Paranthropus robustus Βρισκόταν νοτίως της αφρικανικής ηπείρου, σε τροπικές περιοχές και ανοικτά λιβάδια, όπως το Coopers Cave, το Drimolen, το Swartkrans, το Kromdraai και το Gondolin. In August 1938, Broom classified the robust Kromdraai remains into a new genus as Paranthropus robustus. He also noted that, compared to other australopithecines, Paranthropus seems to have had an expanded cerebellum like Homo, echoing what Tobias said while studying P. boisei skulls in 1967. READ PAPER. distinct features of Paranthropus. Comparing the ratio to humans, he concluded that P. robustus was a heavily-built species with a height of 140–150 cm (4 ft 7 in–4 ft 11 in) and a weight of 68–91 kg (150–201 lb). Sillen A(1), Balter V(2). [25] Among these are the most complete P. robustus skulls: the presumed female DNH-7 (which also preserved articulated jawbone with almost all the teeth), and presumed male DNH 155. [55][75][94] In addition, these two species resided alongside Australopithecus sediba which is known from about 2 million years ago at Malapa. [102], As an antipredator behaviour, baboons often associate themselves with medium-to-large herbivores, most notably impalas, and it is possible that P. robustus as well as other early hominins which lived in open environments did so also, given they are typically associated with an abundance of medium-to-large bovid and horse remains. [58], In 2004, in their review of Paranthropus dietary literature, anthropologists Bernard Wood and David Strait concluded that Paranthropus were most definitely generalist feeders, and that P. robustus was an omnivore. Earlier members yielded A. africanus. The 1st permanent molar of SK 63, which may have died at 3.4–3.7 years of age, possibly erupted at 2.9–3.2 years. P. robustus limb anatomy is similar to that of other australopithecines, which may indicate a less efficient walking ability than modern humans, and perhaps some degree of arboreality (movement in the trees). Discovered in 1938, it was among the first early hominins described, and became the type species for the genus Paranthropus. Based on this, he concluded babies were birthed at intervals of 3 to 4 years using a statistical test to maximise the number of children born. If P. robustus preferred a savanna habitat, a multi-male society would have been more conducive in defending the troop from predators in the more exposed environment, much like baboons which live in the savanna. [79], In 1968, American anthropologist Alan Mann, using dental maturity, stratified P. robustus specimens from Swartkrans into different ages, and found an average of 17.2 years at death (they did not necessarily die from old age), and the oldest specimen was 30–35 years old. Unlike other apes and gracile australopithecines, but like humans, the premaxillary suture between the premaxilla and the maxilla (on the palate) formed early in development. [38] Four femora assigned to P. robustus—SK 19, SK 82, SK 97, and SK 3121—exhibit an apparently high anisotropic trabecular bone (at the hip joint) structure, which could indicate reduced mobility of the hip joint compared to non-human apes, and the ability to produce forces consistent with humanlike bipedalism. [89] A molar from Drimolen showed a cavity on the tooth root, a rare occurrence in fossil great apes. One of the most controversial aspects of the various species of Australopithecus is their presumed diets, which are related intimately to their use (or non-use) of primitive tools. Dentin exposure on juvenile teeth could indicate early weaning, or a more abrasive diet than adults which wore away the cementum and enamel coatings, or both. Paranthropus boisei was first discovered by Mary Leaky in 1959, and was first termed Zinjanthropus boisei or Zinj. P. robustus and H. habilis may have achieved about the same grade of bipedality. [57], In 1954, Robinson suggested that the heavily built skull of P. robustus and resultantly exorbitant bite force was indicative of a specialist diet adapted for frequently cracking hard foods such as nuts. Der Vormensch Paranthropus robustus gilt als der stämmige Vetter unserer Vorfahren, der Australopithecinen. [7] This scheme was widely criticised for being too liberal in demarcating species. A third species of Australopithecus, A. robustus, was so much bigger than these other two species (with a bigger brain as well) that it's now usually assigned to its own genus, Paranthropus. Paranthropus robustus is the last of the Paranthropus Group of human ancestors. Paranthropus is Latin for ‘near human’ a name created by the famous Scottish palaeontologist Robert Broom in 1938. [22], Upon describing the species, Broom estimated the fragmentary braincase of TM 1517 as 600 cc,[1] and he, along with South African anthropologist Gerrit Willem Hendrik Schepers, revised this to 575–680 cc in 1946.

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