Following several more Spanish expeditions, the first permanent settlement was established in Cebu in 1565. Governor-General Basco had opened the Philippines to this trade. After Rajah Patis of Cebu, some indigenous Filipino nobles resisted Spanish rule. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe. Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. On March 22, 1897, the convention established the Tejeros Revolutionary Government. Madrid administered the colony through the Viceroyalty of New Spain (now Mexico) until 1821 (when Mexico achieved independence from Spain). Throughout their rule, the Spanish government had faced numerous revolts across the country, most of which they had successfully quelled while others were won through agreements with the leaders of the revolts themselves. People who rendered the forced labor was called “polistas”. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants. This second part of expedition was led by commander Juan Sebastian Elcano who ultimately completed the world's first circumnavigation in 1522. All sorts of products from China, Japan, Brunei, the Moluccas and even India were sent[by whom?] In 1892, Radical members of the La Liga Filipina, which included Bonifacio and Deodato Arellano, founded the Kataastaasan Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK), called simply the Katipunan, which had the objective of the Philippines seceding from the Spanish Empire. By an ancillary secret convention, Spain was committed to making preparations for war against Britain. The Dutch and British both bitterly opposed it because they saw the company as a direct attack on their trade in ASia. After the Liberals won the Spanish Revolution of 1868, Carlos María de la Torre was sent to the Philippines to serve as governor-general (1869–1871). They left their mark probably more so than any other foreign nation to which the Philippines was subjected.Spain was one of the most powerful nations in t… Which of the following was NOT part of the goods that were traded during the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade? Freemasonry was important during the time of the Philippine Revolution. Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda. It is estimated that there were 35 masonic lodges in the Philippines in 1893 of which nine were in Manila. On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila Bay, the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy, led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia, decisively defeated the Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The first Filipino Masonic lodge was Revoluccion. Traditional Filipino Games or Indigenous games in the Philippines (Tagalog: Laro ng Lahi) are games commonly played by children, usually using native materials or instruments. With the loss of its naval forces and of control of Manila Bay, Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines. Many of these customs and traditions, government and way of life, have come down to the present day, despite the changes brought about by westernization and modernization. Residential areas lay around the plaza. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars.  These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. The alcalde mayor was usually an Insular (Spaniard born in the Philippines). The mass deportation of nationalists to the Marianas and Europe in 1872 led to a Filipino expatriate community of reformers in Europe. . The first task was the reduction, or relocation of indigenous Filipinos into settlements. All were defeated by the Spanish and their Filipino allies by 1597.  With time, Cebu's importance diminished as power shifted north to Luzon. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, 1521–1898, there were several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese (Sangleys), and Insulares (Filipinos of full or near full Spanish descent), often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah, and Moro Datus. Aguinaldo then sailed to Hong Kong for self exile. . For this reason, the Filipinos became followers to the Spaniards in their own country. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish. The second battle is the most famous and celebrated of the three, with nearly even forces (10 ships vs 10 ships), resulting in the Dutch losing their flagship and retreating. Among the reformers was José Rizal, who wrote two novels while in Europe. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. However, Dutch aid did not materialize or have objects to provide them. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898 and remained co-official, along with English, until 1987. To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient Castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines: the Residencia, dating back to the 5th century, and the Visita, which differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within the official's term, without any previous notice. [page needed], While the revolution spread throughout the provinces, Aguinaldo's Katipuneros declared the existence of an insurgent government in October regardless of Bonifacio's Katipunan, which he had already converted into an insurgent government with him as president in August. The Philippines has also fielded formidable national teams for the World Basketball Championships. T here were formerly in Manila Latinity schools where that language was taught together with a little Spanish, the only mandatory requirements for the study of philosophy, theology and jurisprudence in the University of … In 1646, a series of five naval actions known as the Battles of La Naval de Manila was fought between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, as part of the Eighty Years' War. The authorities from Manila issued a general pardon, and many of the Filipinos in the mountains surrendered. Encomienda Central Government These were povinces whose inhabitants had resistance to spanish rule. Many Filipinos prospered. The Philippines were ruled by Spain for more than three centuries. , The early success at Manila did not enable the British to control the Philippines. , Also there was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ, a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed), an annual forced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. On January 23, 1899, Aguinaldo established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos. The revolt occurred in the same year as the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly defended enclosure of … He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. This is a comprehensive practice exam for a Philippine History book. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. A president is head of an independent country, not a colony. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. He was arrested just a few days after founding the league. By 1896 the Katipunan had a membership by the thousands. The supposed Philippine education was only a means to remain in the Philippines as colonizers. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb. In December 1889, Marcelo H. del Pilar established, with the help of Julio Llorente, the Solidaridad in Madrid. Under Spanish rule, Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. Following several more Spanish expeditions, the first permanent settlement was established in Cebu in 1565. primary schools, where children should be taught to read, write and count, and also the catechism of the Catholic Church. , The first vessel of the Royal Philippine Company to set sail was the "Nuestra Señora de los Placeres" commanded by the captain Juan Antonio Zabaleta. On the local level, heading the pacified provinces (alcaldías), was the provincial governor (alcalde mayor). There he became embroiled in discussions whether to replace the Katipunan with an insurgent government of the Cavite rebels' design. Trade between Philippines and Spain went via the Pacific Ocean (between Manila and Acapulco in Mexico), and then across the Atlantic Ocean to Spain (Veracruz to Cádiz). In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from potential invasions of outside powers such as the Dutch, British and Chinese. On March 10, 1785, King Charles III of Spain confirmed the establishment of the Royal Philippine Company with a 25-year charter. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. Spanish Regime When the Spaniards reached our shores, they used dramas such as zarzuelas as a pedagogical tool to influence the pagan tribes and teach them about Christianity and religion. By 1884, the tribute was replaced by the cedula personal, wherein everyone over 18 were required to pay for personal identification. Spanish Colonial Government 1. During the British occupation of Manila (1762–1764), Diego Silang was appointed by them as governor of Ilocos and after his assassination by fellow Filipinos, his wife Gabriela continued to lead the Ilocanos in the fight against Spanish rule. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila was under British occupation and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898. By implication, it was a public office and the person became known as a n encomiendero who: 1. But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. II ( 1840), Institute for Research of Iloilo Official Website, "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries", "The Philippines: historical demographic data of the whole country", "Censos de Cúba, Puerto Rico, Filipinas y España. To Spain, the galleon trade was the link that bound the Philippines to her. The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. Source: philippineamericanwar.webs.com. It should show you the areas that you need to study more on. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. A Legend of Freedom: Francisco Dagohoy and the Rebels of Bohol", "Philip II and the "Philippine Referendum" of 1599", "Philip II, the Philippines, and the Hispanic World", Shamanism, Catholicism and Gender Relations in Colonial Philippines 1521-1685, Timeline of Philippine History: Spanish colonization, National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Philippines_(1565–1898)&oldid=999885865, 1521 establishments in the Spanish Empire, Articles with incomplete citations from July 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from July 2020, Articles with failed verification from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, All Wikipedia articles written in Philippine English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with failed verification from October 2011, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Civil and Spiritual Authority (through Royal Patronage), Municipal council composed of the municipal captain, the chief lieutenant, the lieutenant of police, the lieutenant of fields and the lieutenant of livestock, all of which were elected by the residents of the municipio, Composed of 6 to 10 appointed royal councilors, Governed all the Spanish colonies in the King's name, and had legislative power, Served as the court of appeals for the colonies, Initially exercised executive (as Governor), legislative, judicial (as President of the Audiencia), military (as Captain General), and ecclesiastical (as Vice Patron) powers, By 1821 or 1875, the office became Governor General, Appointed by the King with the advice of the council and probably the Viceroy prior to 1821, Had full spiritual authority over the army and navy as military Vicar General of the islands, Advised the Captain General, especially in matters concerning the governance and provisioning of the Church in the Philippines. During the Spanish period, the Philippines was not an independent country and so could not have a president. To dance the Tinikling, you need two pairs of bamboo poles that are each 6–12 feet long (about 1.8–3.7 meters). [failed verification] Emilio Aguinaldo and the Katipuneros of Cavite were the most successful of the rebels and they controlled most of their province by September–October. E-mail Citation » A hefty tome close to 500 pages in length; the prolific and esteemed Filipino historian Gregorio Zaide organized an excellent survey. Manila, Philippines: R. P. Garcia, 1949. History of Spain in the Philippines The time that the Philippines was under Spanish rule make THE SPANIARDS ASCOLONIAL MASTERS 2. The Dutch had formed an alliance with an anti-Spanish king, Salicala. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. "sons of the country"). were displaced from government positions by the Peninsulares, whom the Insulares regarded as foreigners. The European population in the archipelago steadily grew although native Filipinos remained the majority. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old, Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo, Elected by the residents of the municipio, Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families, Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period. Estudio de su relación", https://books.google.com/books?id=kbWv-pZy5H0C&pg=PA1, "Rostros de piedra; biografías de un mundo perdido", https://www.studymode.com/essays/Polo-y-Servicio-1880531.html, "11.  To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses across the archipelago. 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